Monday, November 09, 2015

Human Genetic Enginering, DNA Modifications, DNA Editing, Genome Editing, Trans-humanism, Transgenic, xenotransplantation, Humanized Animals, and Human Chimeras

Last week, NPR had a report "Should Human Stem Cells Be Used To Make Partly Human Chimeras?". Apparently, there was a meeting in NIH to discuss the ethic issues of the DNA engineering and the hybrid of human and animal genes. The podcast can be listened below.

DNA engineering has advanced very much in recent years. The hybrid of human and animal genes is becoming possible. While the benefit is obvious in pharmaceutical and other area, the ethic issue can not be ignored.

An article "Ethical Implications of Human Genetic Engineering" by Renuka Sivapatham touched all of these ethic issues.

A youtube video titled "Hman Genetic Engineering Legal??? Hybrid World: DNA Modification, Trans-humanism, Transgenic..." talked about this fascinating, but scary topic.

On FDA's side, there are a set of in 'Cellular & Gene Therapy' and in 'Xenotransplantation', for example:

FDA also has a Cellular, Tissue, and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee that reviews and evaluates available data relating to the safety, effectiveness, and appropriate use of human cells, human tissues, gene transfer therapies and xenotransplantation products which are intended for transplantation, implantation, infusion and transfer in the prevention and treatment of a broad spectrum of human diseases and in the reconstruction, repair or replacement of tissues for various conditions.

FDA defines the xenotransplantation as "any procedure that involves the transplantation, implantation or infusion into a human recipient of either (a) live cells, tissues, or organs from a nonhuman animal source, or (b) human body fluids, cells, tissues or organs that have had ex vivo contact with live nonhuman animal cells, tissues or organs. The development of xenotransplantation is, in part, driven by the fact that the demand for human organs for clinical transplantation far exceeds the supply."

In EU, EMA this year issued its guideline "Guideline on the quality, non-clinical and clinical aspects5 of gene therapy medicinal products".

Further Reading:

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